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Brunei    Introduction Top of Page
Background: The Sultanate of Brunei's heyday occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries, when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the less developed countries. The same family has now ruled in Brunei for over six centuries.
Brunei    Geography Top of Page
Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E
Map references: Southeast Asia
Area: total:  5,770 sq km

land:  5,270 sq km

water:  500 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries: total:  381 km

border countries:  Malaysia 381 km
Coastline: 161 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone:  200 NM or to median line

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  South China Sea 0 m

highest point:  Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use: arable land:  1%

permanent crops:  1%

permanent pastures:  1%

forests and woodland:  85%

other:  12% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare
Environment - current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:  none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia
Brunei    People Top of Page
Population: 343,653 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  30.77% (male 53,977; female 51,772)

15-64 years:  66.52% (male 121,601; female 107,007)

65 years and over:  2.71% (male 4,449; female 4,847) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.11% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 20.45 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 3.38 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 4.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1.14 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.92 male(s)/female

total population:  1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  73.82 years

male:  71.45 years

female:  76.31 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun:  Bruneian(s)

adjective:  Bruneian
Ethnic groups: Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%
Religions: Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%
Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  88.2%

male:  92.6%

female:  83.4% (1995 est.)
Brunei    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  Negara Brunei Darussalam

conventional short form:  Brunei
Government type: constitutional sultanate
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)
National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas
Suffrage: none
Executive branch: chief of state:  Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:  Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises

elections:  none; the monarch is hereditary
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the monarch)

elections:  last held in March 1962

note:  in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)
Political parties and leaders: Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was revived in 1995 and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965, deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador PUTEH ibni Mohammad Alam

chancery:  3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 342-0159

FAX:  [1] (202) 342-0158
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD

embassy:  Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan

mailing address:  PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507

telephone:  [673] (2) 229670

FAX:  [673] (2) 225293
Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands
Brunei    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. Exports of crude oil and natural gas account for over half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, a further widening of the economic base beyond oil and gas.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,600 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  5%

industry:  46%

services:  49% (1996 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  NA%

highest 10%:  NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1999 est.)
Labor force: 144,000 (1995 est.); note - includes foreign workers and military personnel

note:  temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)
Labor force - by occupation: government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1995 est.)
Budget: revenues:  $2.5 billion

expenditures:  $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (1997 est.)
Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, li