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Cambodia    Introduction Top of Page
Background: Following a five-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside and touched off 13 years of fighting. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy, as did the rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces.
Cambodia    Geography Top of Page
Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references: Southeast Asia
Area: total:  181,040 sq km

land:  176,520 sq km

water:  4,520 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries: total:  2,572 km

border countries:  Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Coastline: 443 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

continental shelf:  200 NM

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Gulf of Thailand 0 m

highest point:  Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Land use: arable land:  13%

permanent crops:  0%

permanent pastures:  11%

forests and woodland:  66%

other:  10% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Environment - current issues: illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Cambodia    People Top of Page
Population: 12,491,501

note:  estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  41.25% (male 2,626,821; female 2,526,510)

15-64 years:  55.28% (male 3,253,611; female 3,651,129)

65 years and over:  3.47% (male 177,577; female 255,853) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.25% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 33.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 10.65 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.69 male(s)/female

total population:  0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 65.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  56.82 years

male:  54.62 years

female:  59.12 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.74 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.04% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 220,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 14,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun:  Cambodian(s)

adjective:  Cambodian
Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Religions: Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
Languages: Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  35%

male:  48%

female:  22% (1990 est.)
Cambodia    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  Kingdom of Cambodia

conventional short form:  Cambodia

local long form:  Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea

local short form:  Kampuchea

former:  Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic
Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993
Capital: Phnom Penh
Administrative divisions: 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Po