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Indonesia    Introduction Top of Page
Background: The world's largest archipelago, Indonesia achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include: implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector, effecting a transition to a popularly elected government after four decades of authoritarianism, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding the military accountable for human rights violations, and resolving growing separatist pressures in Aceh and Irian Jaya. On 30 August 1999 a provincial referendum for independence was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur. Concurrence followed by Indonesia's national legislature, and the name East Timor was provisionally adopted. The independent status of East Timor - now under UN administration - has yet to be formally established.
Indonesia    Geography Top of Page
Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references: Southeast Asia
Area: total:  1,919,440 sq km

land:  1,826,440 sq km

water:  93,000 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries: total:  2,602 km

border countries:  Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline: 54,716 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use: arable land:  10%

permanent crops:  7%

permanent pastures:  7%

forests and woodland:  62%

other:  14% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes
Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
Indonesia    People Top of Page
Population: 228,437,870 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  30.26% (male 35,144,702; female 33,973,879)

15-64 years:  65.11% (male 74,273,519; female 74,458,291)

65 years and over:  4.63% (male 4,641,816; female 5,945,663) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.6% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 22.26 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.78 male(s)/female

total population:  1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 40.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  68.27 years

male:  65.9 years

female:  70.75 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.58 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 52,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,100 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun:  Indonesian(s)

adjective:  Indonesian
Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Religions: Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)
Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  83.8%

male:  89.6%

female:  78% (1995 est.)
Indonesia    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form:  Indonesia

local long form:  Republik Indonesia

local short form:  Indonesia

former:  Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
Government type: republic
Capital: Jakarta
Administrative divisions: 27 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - the province of Irian Jaya may have been divided into two new provinces - Central Irian Jaya and West Irian Jaya; with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts (regencies) may become the key administrative units

note:  following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence which was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as a provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor is under UN administration pending its formal independence
Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)
National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch: chief of state:  President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:  President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president

elections:  president and vice president elected separately by the 700-member People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; election for president last held 23 July 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); election for vice president last held 26 July 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results:  MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected president, receiving 591 votes in favor (91 abstentions); Hamzah HAZ elected vice president, receiving 340 votes in favor (237 against)

note:  the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 200 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve the broad outlines of national policy
Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 462 elected by popular vote, 38 are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)

elections:  last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held NA June 2004)

election results:  percent of vote by party - PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar 20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party - PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature)
Political parties and leaders: Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Development Unity Party or PPP (federation of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]; Federation of Functional Groups or Golkar [Akbar TANJUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party or PDI (federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties) [Budi HARDJONO, chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Matori Abdul DJALIL, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador Thomas Aquino SAMODRA SRIWIDJAJA

chancery:  2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone:  [1] (202) 775-5200

FAX:  [1] (202) 775-5365

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador Ralph L. BOYCE

embassy:  Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110

mailing address:  Unit 8129, Box 1, APO AP 96520

telephone:  [62] (21) 3435-9000

FAX:  [62] (21) 385-7189

consulate(s) general:  Surabaya
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
Indonesia    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces severe economic problems, stemming from secessionist movements and the low level of security in the regions, the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes, corruption, weaknesses in the banking system, and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. Growth of 4.8% in 2000 is not sustainable, being attributable to favorable short-term factors, including high world oil prices, a surge in nonoil exports, and increased domestic demand for consumer durables.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $654 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,900 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  21%

industry:  35%

services:  44% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line: 20% (1998)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  3.6%

highest 10%:  30.3% (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (2000 est.)
Labor force: 99 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 15%-20% (1998 est.)
Budget: revenues:  $26 billion

expenditures:  $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries: petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and footwear; mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food; tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production: 78.674 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  80.36%

hydro:  14.63%

nuclear:  0%

other:  5.01% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 73.167 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Exports: $64.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and gas, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners: Japan 21%, US 14%, Singapore 10%, South Korea 7%, Netherlands 3%, Australia 3%, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan (1999 est.)
Imports: $40.4 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Japan 12%, US 12%, Singapore 10%, Germany 6%, Australia 6%, South Korea 6%, Taiwan, China (1999 est.)
Debt - external: $144 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $43 billion from IMF program and other official external financing (1997-2000)
Currency: Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Currency code: IDR
Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 10,000 (January 2001), 8,421.8 (2000), 7,855.2 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998), 2,909.4 (1997), 2,342.3 (1996)
Fiscal year: calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year
Indonesia    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 5,588,310 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.07 million (1998)
Telephone system: general assessment:  domestic service fair, international service good

domestic:  interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system

international:  satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Radios: 31.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 41 (1999)
Televisions: 13.75 million (1997)
Internet country code: .id
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 24 (2000)
Internet users: 400,000 (2000)
Indonesia    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: total:  6,458 km

narrow gauge:  5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double-track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2001)
Highways: total:  342,700 km

paved:  158,670 km

unpaved:  184,030 km (1997)
Waterways: 21,579 km total

note:  Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)
Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Makassar, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya
Merchant marine: total:  609 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,698,157 GRT/3,723,933 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 36, cargo 357, chemical tanker 10, container 25, liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier 1, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 117, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea passenger 8, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 5 (2000 est.)
Airports: 453 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  136

over 3,047 m:  4

2,438 to 3,047 m:  12

1,524 to 2,437 m:  39

914 to 1,523 m:  44

under 914 m:  37 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  317

1,524 to 2,437 m:  6

914 to 1,523 m:  28

under 914 m:  283 (2000 est.)
Heliports: 4 (2000 est.)
Indonesia    Military Top of Page
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines

note:  as of 1 July 2000, the National Police became an independent organization that reports directly to the president
Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  64,046,049 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:  37,418,755 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  2,263,706 (2001 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 billion (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY98/99)
Indonesia    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: Sipadan and Ligitan Islands in dispute with Malaysia
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin